pubhealth:



First Imported Case of Ebola Diagnosed in the United States


CDC confirmed on September 30, 2014, through laboratory tests, the first case of Ebola to be diagnosed in the United States in a person who had traveled to Dallas, Texas from West Africa. The patient did not have symptoms when leaving West Africa, but developed symptoms approximately five days after arriving in the United States.
The person sought medical care at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas after developing symptoms consistent with Ebola. Based on the person’s travel history and symptoms, CDC recommended testing for Ebola. The medical facility isolated the patient and sent specimens for testing at CDC and at a Texas lab participating in CDC’s Laboratory Response Network. CDC and the Texas Health Department reported the laboratory test results to the medical center to inform the patient. Local public health officials have begun identifying close contacts of the person for further daily monitoring for 21 days after exposure.
The ill person did not exhibit symptoms of Ebola during the flights from West Africa and CDC does not recommend that people on the same commercial airline flights undergo monitoring, as Ebola is only contagious if the person is experiencing active symptoms. The person reported developing symptoms several days after the return flight.
CDC recognizes that even a single case of Ebola diagnosed in the United States raises concerns. Knowing the possibility exists, medical and public health professionals across the country have been preparing to respond. CDC and public health officials in Texas are taking precautions to identify people who have had close personal contact with the ill person and health care professionals have been reminded to use meticulous infection control at all times.
We know how to stop Ebola’s further spread: thorough case finding, isolation of ill people, contacting people exposed to the ill person, and further isolation of contacts if they develop symptoms. The U.S. public health and medical systems have had prior experience with sporadic cases of diseases such as Ebola. In the past decade, the United States had 5 imported cases of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) diseases similar to Ebola (1 Marburg, 4 Lassa). None resulted in any transmission in the United States.
(From CDC)





Ebola case in my hometown

pubhealth:

First Imported Case of Ebola Diagnosed in the United States

CDC confirmed on September 30, 2014, through laboratory tests, the first case of Ebola to be diagnosed in the United States in a person who had traveled to Dallas, Texas from West Africa. The patient did not have symptoms when leaving West Africa, but developed symptoms approximately five days after arriving in the United States.

The person sought medical care at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas after developing symptoms consistent with Ebola. Based on the person’s travel history and symptoms, CDC recommended testing for Ebola. The medical facility isolated the patient and sent specimens for testing at CDC and at a Texas lab participating in CDC’s Laboratory Response Network. CDC and the Texas Health Department reported the laboratory test results to the medical center to inform the patient. Local public health officials have begun identifying close contacts of the person for further daily monitoring for 21 days after exposure.

The ill person did not exhibit symptoms of Ebola during the flights from West Africa and CDC does not recommend that people on the same commercial airline flights undergo monitoring, as Ebola is only contagious if the person is experiencing active symptoms. The person reported developing symptoms several days after the return flight.

CDC recognizes that even a single case of Ebola diagnosed in the United States raises concerns. Knowing the possibility exists, medical and public health professionals across the country have been preparing to respond. CDC and public health officials in Texas are taking precautions to identify people who have had close personal contact with the ill person and health care professionals have been reminded to use meticulous infection control at all times.

We know how to stop Ebola’s further spread: thorough case finding, isolation of ill people, contacting people exposed to the ill person, and further isolation of contacts if they develop symptoms. The U.S. public health and medical systems have had prior experience with sporadic cases of diseases such as Ebola. In the past decade, the United States had 5 imported cases of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) diseases similar to Ebola (1 Marburg, 4 Lassa). None resulted in any transmission in the United States.

(From CDC)

Ebola case in my hometown

nprglobalhealth:

How Do You Catch Ebola: By Air, Sweat Or Water?
There’s no question Ebola is one of the most terrifying diseases out there. It causes a painful death, typically kills more than 50 percent of those infected and essentially has no cure.
But if you compare how contagious the Ebola virus is to, say SARS or the measles, Ebola just doesn’t stack up. In fact, the virus is harder to catch than the common cold.
That’s because there has been no evidence that Ebola spreads between people through the air. Health experts repeatedly emphasize that human-to-human transmission requires direct contact with infected bodily fluids, including blood, vomit and feces.
And to infect, those fluids have to reach a break in the skin or the mucous membranes found around your eyes, mouth and nose.
But that hasn’t stopped two-thirds of Americans from thinking that the virus spreads “easily,” a poll from Harvard School of Public Health found in August. Almost 40 percent of the 1,025 people surveyed said they worry about an Ebola epidemic in the U.S. More than a quarter were concerned about catching the virus themselves.
Many questions still linger. Is Ebola really not airborne? Can it spread through contaminated water? What about through a drop of blood left behind on a table?
So we took those questions to two virologists: Alan Schmaljohn at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, and Jean-Paul Gonzalez at Metabiota, a company that tracks global infectious diseases.
Continue reading.
Photo: A burial team in Barkedu, Liberia, buries their protective clothing alongside the body of an Ebola victim. It’s possible to catch the virus from clothing soiled by infected blood or other bodily fluids. (Tommy Trenchard for NPR)

nprglobalhealth:

How Do You Catch Ebola: By Air, Sweat Or Water?

There’s no question Ebola is one of the most terrifying diseases out there. It causes a painful death, typically kills more than 50 percent of those infected and essentially has no cure.

But if you compare how contagious the Ebola virus is to, say SARS or the measles, Ebola just doesn’t stack up. In fact, the virus is harder to catch than the common cold.

That’s because there has been no evidence that Ebola spreads between people through the air. Health experts repeatedly emphasize that human-to-human transmission requires direct contact with infected bodily fluids, including blood, vomit and feces.

And to infect, those fluids have to reach a break in the skin or the mucous membranes found around your eyes, mouth and nose.

But that hasn’t stopped two-thirds of Americans from thinking that the virus spreads “easily,” a poll from Harvard School of Public Health found in August. Almost 40 percent of the 1,025 people surveyed said they worry about an Ebola epidemic in the U.S. More than a quarter were concerned about catching the virus themselves.

Many questions still linger. Is Ebola really not airborne? Can it spread through contaminated water? What about through a drop of blood left behind on a table?

So we took those questions to two virologists: Alan Schmaljohn at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, and Jean-Paul Gonzalez at Metabiota, a company that tracks global infectious diseases.

Continue reading.

Photo: A burial team in Barkedu, Liberia, buries their protective clothing alongside the body of an Ebola victim. It’s possible to catch the virus from clothing soiled by infected blood or other bodily fluids. (Tommy Trenchard for NPR)

The opposite of a correct statement is a false statement. But the opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth.

Niels Bohr (via currentsinbiology)

currentsinbiology:

Mosquitoes transmit chikungunya in continental US (Nature News)

Two people have acquired the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus in the continental United States, the state of Florida’s Department of Health announced today. The cases, one in Miami-Dade County and another in Palm Beach County, confirm that the virus has infected US mosquitoes.
Chikungunya is an illness marked mainly by discomfort: a high fever, rashes, and severe joint, back and muscle pain. It is rarely fatal, and most recover within days or weeks. However, joint pain can sometimes persist for months. Chikungunya cannot be transmitted from person to person; it can be contracted only from a mosquito.
The United States is only the latest destination for the globetrotting virus. First described in the 1950s in East Africa, it has spread throughout central and southern Africa, India and Southeast Asia, generally through the mosquito Aedes aegypti. But a mutation that is suspected to have occurred in a 2005–06 outbreak on Réunion Island appears to have allowed it to infect Aedes albopictus, also known as the Asian tiger mosquito. This enabled the virus to spread as far north as Italy in 2007.
The photo is the structure of a Togaviridae family virus and represents the photo of a Chikungunya virus. The structure has a diameter of about 50nm to 70nm. Chikungunya virus consists of a single stranded positive sense RNA.

currentsinbiology:

Mosquitoes transmit chikungunya in continental US (Nature News)

Two people have acquired the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus in the continental United States, the state of Florida’s Department of Health announced today. The cases, one in Miami-Dade County and another in Palm Beach County, confirm that the virus has infected US mosquitoes.

Chikungunya is an illness marked mainly by discomfort: a high fever, rashes, and severe joint, back and muscle pain. It is rarely fatal, and most recover within days or weeks. However, joint pain can sometimes persist for months. Chikungunya cannot be transmitted from person to person; it can be contracted only from a mosquito.

The United States is only the latest destination for the globetrotting virus. First described in the 1950s in East Africa, it has spread throughout central and southern Africa, India and Southeast Asia, generally through the mosquito Aedes aegypti. But a mutation that is suspected to have occurred in a 2005–06 outbreak on Réunion Island appears to have allowed it to infect Aedes albopictus, also known as the Asian tiger mosquito. This enabled the virus to spread as far north as Italy in 2007.

The photo is the structure of a Togaviridae family virus and represents the photo of a Chikungunya virus. The structure has a diameter of about 50nm to 70nm. Chikungunya virus consists of a single stranded positive sense RNA.

nprglobalhealth:

The Camel Did It: Scientists Nail Down Source Of Middle East Virus
In the two years since Middle East respiratory syndrome was first diagnosed in people, scientists have struggled to figure out how we catch the deadly virus. Some blamed bats. Others pointed at camels.
Now scientists in Saudi Arabia offer the strongest evidence yet that the one-humped dromedaries can indeed spread the MERS virus — which has infected more than 800 people on four continents, including two men in the U.S.
Last October, a 44-year-old retired military man caught MERS while treating one of his drippy-nosed camels at a farm near Jeddah, scientists say. The camel was congested. The man applied something like a vapor rub directly to the camel’s nose. A week later, he fell ill. He was admitted to an intensive care unit on November 3 and died on the 18th.
The MERS viruses isolated from both the man and camel had almost exactly the same the DNA sequence, scientists report Wednesday in the New England Journal of Medicine.
"It unequivocally demonstrates that transmission from camels to people is possible," says virologist Ian Lipkin from Columbia University, who wasn’t involved in the study.
MERS causes pneumonia-like symptoms and sometimes organ failure. There’s no cure or vaccine. So figuring out where the virus originates is key to stopping it.
Camels have been at the top of list. The MERS virus has been circulating in Arabian camels for more than two decades, scientists reported in February. And the virus has been found in a camels at a farm owned by two people who caught MERS in Qatar.
But these studies were missing one critical component, says immunologist Matthew Frieman of the University of Maryland: “The direction of the infection was never known,” he says. Did the camels infect people or did people infect the camels?
Continue reading.
Photo: A Saudi Arabian man wears a mask to protect against the Middle East respiratory syndrome at his farm outside Riyadh, May 12. (Fayez Nureldine/AFP/Getty Images)

nprglobalhealth:

The Camel Did It: Scientists Nail Down Source Of Middle East Virus

In the two years since Middle East respiratory syndrome was first diagnosed in people, scientists have struggled to figure out how we catch the deadly virus. Some blamed bats. Others pointed at camels.

Now scientists in Saudi Arabia offer the strongest evidence yet that the one-humped dromedaries can indeed spread the MERS virus — which has infected more than 800 people on four continents, including two men in the U.S.

Last October, a 44-year-old retired military man caught MERS while treating one of his drippy-nosed camels at a farm near Jeddah, scientists say. The camel was congested. The man applied something like a vapor rub directly to the camel’s nose. A week later, he fell ill. He was admitted to an intensive care unit on November 3 and died on the 18th.

The MERS viruses isolated from both the man and camel had almost exactly the same the DNA sequence, scientists report Wednesday in the New England Journal of Medicine.

"It unequivocally demonstrates that transmission from camels to people is possible," says virologist Ian Lipkin from Columbia University, who wasn’t involved in the study.

MERS causes pneumonia-like symptoms and sometimes organ failure. There’s no cure or vaccine. So figuring out where the virus originates is key to stopping it.

Camels have been at the top of list. The MERS virus has been circulating in Arabian camels for more than two decades, scientists reported in February. And the virus has been found in a camels at a farm owned by two people who caught MERS in Qatar.

But these studies were missing one critical component, says immunologist Matthew Frieman of the University of Maryland: “The direction of the infection was never known,” he says. Did the camels infect people or did people infect the camels?

Continue reading.

Photo: A Saudi Arabian man wears a mask to protect against the Middle East respiratory syndrome at his farm outside Riyadh, May 12. (Fayez Nureldine/AFP/Getty Images)

pubhealth:

Outbreak of Ebola in Guinea and Liberia



Highlights


May 10, 2014, the Guinea Ministry of Health announced a total of 233 suspect and confirmed cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), including 157 deaths, in the districts of Guékédou, Macenta, Kissidougou, Dabola, Djingaraye, and Conakry, the capital. (See map.)
129 cases across Guinea have been confirmed by laboratory testing to be positive for Ebola virus infection.
As of May 10, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Liberia reported 12 cases (confirmed, probable, or suspect) across the country.
Genetic analysis of the virus indicates that it is closely related (97% identical) to variants of Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus) identified earlier in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Gabon (Baize et al. 2014).
The Guinean Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Liberia are working with national and international partners to investigate and respond to the outbreak.





This graphic shows the life cycle of the ebolavirus. Bats are strongly implicated as both reservoirs and hosts for the ebolavirus. Of the five identified ebolavirus subtypes, four are capable of human-to-human transmission. Initial infections in humans result from contact with an infected bat or other wild animal. Strict isolation of infected patients is essential to reduce onward ebolavirus transmission.
(From CDC)

pubhealth:

Outbreak of Ebola in Guinea and Liberia

Highlights

This graphic shows the life cycle of the ebolavirus. Bats are strongly implicated as both reservoirs and hosts for the ebolavirus. Of the five identified ebolavirus subtypes, four are capable of human-to-human transmission. Initial infections in humans result from contact with an infected bat or other wild animal. Strict isolation of infected patients is essential to reduce onward ebolavirus transmission.

(From CDC)

scienceyoucanlove:




Researchers have found a new virus related to smallpox. So far two men in the Republic of Georgia have been infected and presented symptoms similar to smallpox, such as painful blisters on the hands and arms, fever and swollen lymph nodes. Both patients caught the virus from dairy cattle. 
Read more: http://n.pr/1kRLBQt via NPR






source


A new smallpox-like virus is on the rise!

scienceyoucanlove:

Researchers have found a new virus related to smallpox. So far two men in the Republic of Georgia have been infected and presented symptoms similar to smallpox, such as painful blisters on the hands and arms, fever and swollen lymph nodes. Both patients caught the virus from dairy cattle. 

Read more: http://n.pr/1kRLBQt via NPR

A new smallpox-like virus is on the rise!

23pairsofchromosomes:

The alarm has been sounded
The world health organisation (WHO) have just released their latest report on the growing concern for antibiotic resistance across the world. They have emphasised the urgency for a post-antibiotic era as numerous bacteria are showing resistance whereas 20 years ago they would have not been a problem. E. coli, S. aureus and S. pneumoniae are among some of the culprits for resistance and many more are emerging. 
WHO wants to set up a network to track antibiotic resistance as it spreads, but the problem is only going to get worse so the world needs to look towards the scientists in hope that they come up with a solution. 
(Source: The-Scientist)

23pairsofchromosomes:

The alarm has been sounded

The world health organisation (WHO) have just released their latest report on the growing concern for antibiotic resistance across the world. They have emphasised the urgency for a post-antibiotic era as numerous bacteria are showing resistance whereas 20 years ago they would have not been a problem. E. coli, S. aureus and S. pneumoniae are among some of the culprits for resistance and many more are emerging. 

WHO wants to set up a network to track antibiotic resistance as it spreads, but the problem is only going to get worse so the world needs to look towards the scientists in hope that they come up with a solution. 

(Source: The-Scientist)